The history of tire development
1. Early tires: Long ago, tires were made of wood, iron and other materials. The first hollow wheel was invented by the British Robert Thomson in 1845. He proposed to use compressed air to fill the elastic bladder to ease the movement. Vibration and shock. Although the tires at that time were made of leather and rubberized canvas, these tires already showed the advantage of low rolling resistance.
2. Pneumatic tires: According to this principle, John Templop made rubber hollow tires in 1888, and then Thomas made rubber hollow tires with valve switches. Unfortunately, there is no canvas in the inner layer, and it cannot be maintained. Certain cross-sectional shape and cross-sectional width
3. Automobile tires: With the emergence of automobiles in 1895, pneumatic tires were widely developed. The first batch of automobile tire samples appeared in France in 1895. This is a single-tube tire made of plain canvas, although it has tread rubber without pattern. It was not until 1908 to 1912 that the tires had significant changes, that is, the tread rubber had a pattern to improve the performance, which opened up the history of the tire tread pattern, and increased the cross-sectional width of the tire, allowing lower The internal pressure to ensure better cushioning performance.
4. Tires with skeleton materials: In 1892, British Burley Mill invented cord fabric and used it in production in 1910. This achievement not only improved the quality of tires and expanded the variety of tires, but also made the outer tires possible. With the improvement of tire quality requirements, the quality of cord fabric has also been improved. Cotton cord fabric is replaced by rayon. At the end of the 1950 s, rayon was replaced by nylon and polyester cords with better strength and higher heat resistance. With the development of radial tires, steel cords have strong competitiveness.
5. Carbon black reinforced rubber tire: Matt created carbon black reinforced rubber in 1904. It was used on a large scale to strengthen tread rubber after tire cord was used. Before that, canvas was damaged faster than tread in tire use. The amount of carbon black in rubber increased rapidly. In the 1930 s, only about 20 parts of carbon black were used in every 100 parts of raw rubber. At this time, carbon black was mainly used on tread and carcass was not used, it now has more than 50 copies. Before the tread was mixed with carbon black, the tire was polished only about 6000km. After mixing carbon black, the mileage of the tire was quickly improved significantly. Now a set of truck tires can travel about 100000km, on good roads, even up to 200000km.
6. Industrial production of tires
From 1913 to 1926, the invention of cord and carbon black tire technology laid the foundation for the development of the tire industry. The standardization of the outer edge of the tire, the gradual improvement of the manufacturing process, the production speed is higher than before, and the output of the tire is increasing day by day.
7, the early 20th century tire technology progress
With the development of the automobile industry, tire technology has been continuously improved and improved, such
● From the early 1920 s to the mid-1930s, car tires were transitioned from low-pressure tires to ultra-low-pressure tires;
● Since the 1940 s, tires have gradually transitioned to wide rims;
● The emergence of tubeless tires in the late 40 s;
Low profile tires came out in the late 1950 s.
8. Radial tire
In 1913, two Britons, Gray and Sloper, invented the radial tire and patented it. However, it was difficult to develop because the equipment and skeleton materials at that time could not meet the technical requirements of radial tire manufacturing.
In June 1946, Michelin company was awarded the patent right of all steel wire radial tire by the French Patent Office. In 1948, Michelin company of France first produced radial tire. This kind of tire is known as the revolution of tire industry due to the significant improvement of service life and service performance, especially in driving, which can save fuel.
● In 1955, Italy Pearley (Pirelli) company developed a semi-steel radial tire, that is, the carcass using rayon cord, the belt layer using steel cord.
9, Development history of Chinese tire
In 1929, China's national rubber industry was founded.
In 1934, China's first automobile tire was produced.
● In 1964, China's first all-steel radial tire was produced.
● In 1982, China's first car radial tire was produced.
● In 2002, China's first all-steel engineering tire was produced.
● In 2003, China produced the first all-steel industrial tire.